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Founders Corner Library - Major Works

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 14: George Clinton

Extent of Territory Under Consolidated Government. Too Large to Preserve Liberty or Protect Property? George Clinton, October 25, 1787 George Clinton, Governor of New York, was...

Letters from a Farmer in Pennyslvania: Letter 3 – John Dickinson

FOUNDERS CORNER LIBRARY, MAJOR WORKS Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, by John Dickinson, Letter 3 My dear Countrymen, I rejoice to find that my two former...

Constitutional Convention: May 14, 25, 1787

FOUNDERS CORNER LIBRARY: MAJOR WORKS James Madison's Notes: Federal Convention of 1787 May 14, 25, 1787   Monday May 14th 1787 was the day fixed for the meeting...

James Madison: On a Just Partition of Power

Liberty Letters, James Madison It is of great importance in a republic not only to guard the society against the oppression of its rulers, but...

Americans Combat Individualism By Free Institutions

Democracy In America, Alexis de Tocqueville, 1831 Volume 2, Section 2, Chapter 4, That The Americans Combat The Effects Of Individualism By Free Institutions DESPOTISM which by...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 36: Richard Henry Lee

Representation and Internal Taxation Richard Henry Lee Richard Henry Lee was arguably the best known Anti-federalist writer. His pamphlets were widely distributed and reprinted in newspapers....

Tocqueville: Some Reflections On American Manners

Democracy In America, Alexis de Tocqueville, 1831 Volume 2, Section 3, Chapter 14, Some Reflections on American Manners Nothing seems at first sight less important than the...

A Guide to Reading John Locke's Concerning Civil Government: Second Essay

By Mortimer J. Adler and Peter Wolff In the history of human liberty, Locke's essay Concerning Civil Government stands out not only as a great...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 60: John F. Mercer

Will the Constitution Promote the Interests of Favorite Classes? John F. Mercer, 1788 John F. Mercer of Maryland was the author of this essay, taken from...

The Anti-Federalist Papers, No. 12, Cincinnatus

How Will The New Government Raise Money? Cincinnatus, Nov. 29 & Dec. 6, 1787 Note: "Cincinnatus" is an Antifederalist writer. In this essay, from an Address...

Notes of Debates In the Continental Congress: 1775, 1776

Founders Corner Library: Major Works, John Adams Edited by Charles Henry Adams 1775 and 1776 All the notes made by Mr. Adams, during these years, have been...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 35: George Mason

Federal Taxing Power must Be Restrained George Mason, June 4, 1788 George Mason of Virginia opposed the Constitution because it lacked a Bill of Rights, and...

The Articles of Confederation

1777 The same continental congress which passed the Declaration of Independence, appointed a committee "to prepare and digest the form of confederation to be entered...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 25: Brutus

Objections to a Standing Army, Part 2 From the tenth letter of "Brutus" appearing in The New-York Journal, January 24, 1788. The liberties of a people...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 68: William Grayson

On the Mode of Electing the President William Grayson, June 18, 1788 From a speech by William Grayson given to the Virginia ratifying convention on June...

Constitution of the United States of America

September 17, 1787 We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 1: A Federalist

Liberty Letters, A Federalist, Anti-Federalist No. 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION: A DANGEROUS PLAN OF BENEFIT ONLY TO THE "ARISTOCRATICK COMBINATION" November 26, 1787. I am pleased to see...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 9: Montezuma

Liberty Letters, Montezuma, Anti-Federalist No. 9 October 17, 1787 "MONTEZUMA," regarded as a Pennsylvanian, wrote this essay which showed up in the Independent Gazetteer on October...

The Declaration of Independence

The Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, on July 4, 1776. John Hancock was president of the Congress and...

Why The Americans Are So Restless In The Midst Of Prosperity

Democracy In America, Alexis de Tocqueville, 1831 Volume 2, Section 2, Chapter 13, Why The Americans Are So Restless In The Midst Of Their Prosperity In certain...

Connecticut: Vol. 1, Ch. 7, Story’s Commentaries on the Constitution

Founders Corner Library Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States, by Joseph Story, 1833 Volume 1, Chapter 7,  CONNECTICUT § 84. CONNECTICUT was originally settled under the protection...

Tocqueville: Influence of Democracy On The Family

Democracy In America, Alexis de Tocqueville, 1831 Volume 2, Section 3, Chapter 8, Influence of Democracy on the Family I have just examined the changes which the...

The Dangers of Apathy Leading to either Anarchy or Tyranny

Democracy In America, Alexis de Tocqueville, 1831 Appendix BB: The Dangers of Apathy Leading to either Anarchy or Tyranny It cannot be absolutely or generally affirmed...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 84: Brutus

On the Lack of a Bill of Rights Brutus By "Brutus." When a building is to be erected which is intended to stand for ages, the foundation...

Samuel Adams: If Ye Love Wealth Better Than Liberty

Liberty Letters, Samuel Adams If ye love wealth better than liberty, the tranquility of your servitude better than the animating conflict of freedom, go home...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 26: Farmer and Planter

The Use of Coercion by the New Government. (Part 1) A Farmer and Planter, April 1, 1788 "A Farmer and Planter" had his work printed in...

Amendments, U.S. Constitution, Since Bill of Rights

AMENDMENT XI. Judicial powers construed. Ratified in 1795. The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law...

Diary: With Passages From an Autobiography.

The Life of John Adams, by Charles Henry Adams Diary: With Passages From an Autobiography. These are loose fragments of journal in the hand-writing of John...

The Dangers of Democracy Leading to a Centralized Government

Democracy In America, Alexis de Tocqueville, 1831 Appendix Z: The Dangers of Democracy Leading to a Centralized Government Not only is a democratic people led by...

Social Condition of the Anglo-Americans

Democracy In America, Alexis de Tocqueville, 1831 Volume 1, Chapter 3, SOCIAL CONDITION OF THE ANGLO-AMERICANS Social condition is commonly the result of circumstances, sometimes of laws,...