FOUNDERS CORNER LIBRARY, MAJOR WORKS The Militia Wednesday, January 9, 1788 THE power of regulating the militia, and of commanding its services in times of insurrection and invasion are natural incidents to the duties of superintending the common defense, and of watching over the internal peace of the Confederacy. It requires no skill...
Democracy In America, Alexis de Tocqueville, 1831 Volume 2, Section 3, Chapter 13, How The Principle Of Equality Naturally Divides The Americans Into A Multitude Of Small Private Circles I HAVE shown how it is that in ages of equality every man seeks for his opinions within himself; I am now to...
Liberty Letters, 17 September 1787, James Madison Editor's Overview: Inspiring speech written by Benjamin Franklin read in defense of the new Constitution. A Constitution, he said, which, despite its supposed imperfections, may be the best ever produced. He called also for a sense of humility, noting that...
Liberty Letters, Samuel Adams, Apr. 10, 1773 Your Letter to me of the 4th Feb last, I receivd with singular Pleasure; not only because I had long wishd for a Correspondence with some Gentleman in Virginia, but more particularly because I had frequently heard of your Character and Merit, as...
FOUNDERS CORNER LIBRARY, MAJOR WORKS Saturday, February 16, 1788 The total number of members of the House of Representatives (continued) THE second charge against the House of Representatives is, that it will be too small to possess a due knowledge of the interests of its constituents. As this objection evidently proceeds from a...
Liberty Letters, Samuel Adams, 1771 We cannot think the doctrine of the right of Parliament to tax us is given up, while an act remains in force for that purpose, and is daily put in execution; and the longer it remains the more danger there is of the people's becoming...
Liberty Letters, Montezuma, Anti-Federalist No. 9 October 17, 1787 "MONTEZUMA," regarded as a Pennsylvanian, wrote this essay which showed up in the Independent Gazetteer on October 17, 1787. We the Aristocratic party of the United States, lamenting the many inconveniences to which the late confederation subjected the well-born, the better kind of...
Appearance and Reality -- the Form Is Federal; the Effect Is National A Farmer, April 15 and 22, 1788 The following excerpt is from the essays of "A Farmer." It appeared in the Philadelphia Independent Gazetteer on April 15 and 22, 1788. . . . . The Freeman, in his second number,...
Democracy In America, Alexis de Tocqueville, 1831 Volume 1, Chapter 11, Liberty of the Press in the United States DIFFICULTY of restraining the liberty of the press--Particular reasons that some nations have for cherishing this liberty--The liberty of the press a necessary consequence of the sovereignty of the people as it...
Liberty Letters Quote of the Day, Samuel Adams Our forefathers through off the yoke of Popery in religion; for you is reserved the honor of leveling the popery of politics. They opened the Bible to all and maintained the capacity of every man to judge for himself in religion. Are...
The Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, on July 4, 1776. John Hancock was president of the Congress and Charles Thomson was secretary. A copy of the Declaration, engrossed on parchment, was signed by members of Congress on and after August 2, 1776. On...
The Moral Liberal, Classics Library Alexander Hamilton: The Works of Alexander Hamilton, Volume 1, 1774 After the New York Ratifying Convention 1788: Letters of H.G. Letter III  New York, February 22, 1789. Dear Sir: You mention, toward the close of your letter, two reports circulating in your county, which you say operate to the advantage...
Democracy In America, Alexis de Tocqueville, 1831 Volume 2, Section 3, Chapter 14, Some Reflections on American Manners Nothing seems at first sight less important than the outward form of human actions, yet there is nothing upon which men set more store; they grow used to everything except to living in a...
Democracy In America, Alexis de Tocqueville, 1831 Volume 2, Chapter 7, What Causes Democratic Nations To Incline Towards Pantheism I SHALL show hereafter how the preponderant taste of a democratic people for very general ideas manifests itself in politics, but I wish to point out at present its principal effect on philosophy. It...
Liberty Letters, John Adams, 1786 A Defense of the Constitutions of the United States, Letter 33 Ancient Republics and Opinions of Philosophers: PLATO My dear Sir, PLATO has given us the most accurate detail of the natural vicissitudes of manners and principles, the usual progress of the passions in society, and revolutions...
The Power of the Judiciary Brutus, March 20 & April 10, 1788 Part one is taken from the first part of the "Brutus's" 15th essay of The New-York Journal on March 20, 1788; Part two is part one of his 16th of the New York Journal of April 10, 1788. The supreme...
Liberty Letters, Alexander Hamilton, Federalist No. 8 Tuesday, November 20, 1787 ASSUMING it therefore as an established truth that the several States, in case of disunion, or such combinations of them as might happen to be formed out of the wreck of the general Confederacy, would be subject to those vicissitudes...
Representation and Internal Taxation Richard Henry Lee Richard Henry Lee was arguably the best known Anti-federalist writer. His pamphlets were widely distributed and reprinted in newspapers. Anti-federalist Papers # 36/37 are excerpts from his first pamphlet. Anti-federalist Nos. 41, 42, 43, 55, 56, 57, 58, 61, 63, 69, 76-77 are taken...
FOUNDERS CORNER LIBRARY, MAJOR WORKS Commentaries on the Laws of England (Vol. 1 of 4), Introduction, Section 3 1765-1769 THE supreme executive power of these kingdoms is vested by our laws in a single person, the king or queen: for it matters not to which sex the crown...
The Use of Coercion by the New Government. (Part 1) A Farmer and Planter, April 1, 1788 "A Farmer and Planter" had his work printed in The Maryland Journal, and Baltimore Advertiser, April 1, 1788. The time is nearly at hand, when you are called upon to render up that glorious liberty...
Liberty Letters, Samuel Adams, April 12, 1773 General Letter appearing in the Boston Gazette, April 12, 1773 Messieurs EDES & GILL, PERHAPS no measure that has been taken by the Town of Boston during our present Struggles for Liberty, has thwarted the designs of our enemies more than their Votes and Proceedings...
FOUNDERS CORNER LIBRARY, MAJOR WORKS Wednesday, February 6, 1788 The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments TO WHAT expedient, then, shall we finally resort, for maintaining in practice the necessary partition of power among the several departments, as laid down in the Constitution?...
FOUNDERS CORNER LIBRARY: MAJOR WORKS Wednesday, November 7, 1787 Concerning Powers From Foreign Force and Influence MY LAST paper assigned several reasons why the safety of the people would be best secured by union against the danger it may be exposed to by just causes of war given to other nations; and those...
Liberty Letters, John Adams, 1786 A Defense of the Constitutions of the United States, Letter 36 Ancient Aristocratical Republics: ROME My dear Sir, DIONYSIUS Halicarnassensis has not only given us his own judgment, that the most perfect form of government is that which consists of an equal mixture of monarchy, aristocracy, and...
Liberty Letters, John Adams, 1786 A Defense of the Constitutions of the United States, Letter 52 Ancient Aristocratical Republics: Rome. Plebians scrambling after Patricians; or Democracy hunting down Aristocracy; or Tribunes in chase of a Senate.  My dear Sir, WE have before seen, in the history of Rome, with what eagerness the aristocracy...
Liberty Letters, 15 August 1787, James Madison _____________________ Editor's Summary: Madison moved that all bills ought to be submitted not just to the President, but to the Supreme Court for approval, something that was done in England to insure that laws were both soundly written and Constitutional (this was not the...
Liberty Letters, 08 September 1787, James Madison Editor's Overview: Motion to require treaties of peace to be consented to by two-thirds of the Senate, briefly debated and agreed to. Motion to strike out the requirement of a two-thirds vote of the Senate for making treating. Disagreed to. Motion to require that in...
Liberty Letters, James Madison, Regarding Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3 (Commerce) The defect of power in the existing confederacy, to regulate the commerce between its several members, is in the number of those which have been clearly pointed out by experience. To the proofs and remarks which former papers...
Liberty Letters, Madison's Notes, 12 September 1787 DOCr. JOHNSON from the Committee of stile &c. reported a digest of the plan, of which printed copies were ordered to be furnished to the members. He also reported a letter to accompany the plan, to Congress. (Here insert a transcript of the...
Democracy In America, Alexis de Tocqueville, 1831 Volume 2, Section 2, Chapter 9, That The Americans Apply The Principle Of Self-Interest Rightly Understood To Religious Matters If the principle of self-interest rightly understood had nothing but the present world in view, it would be very insufficient, for there are many sacrifices that...