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The Anti-Federalist Papers

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 85: Melancthon Smith

Concluding Remarks: Evils under Confederation Exaggerated; Constitution must Be Drastically Revised Before Adoption Melancthon Smith By Melancthon Smith (a "Plebeian"). . . . . It is agreed,...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 84: Brutus

On the Lack of a Bill of Rights Brutus By "Brutus." When a building is to be erected which is intended to stand for ages, the foundation...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 83: Luther Martin

The Federal Judiciary and the Issue of Trial by Jury Luther Martin By Luther Martin of Maryland. . . . . in all those cases, where the...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 82: Brutus

The Power of the Judiciary. (Part 4) Brutus, March 6 & March 20, 1788 Part 1: Part 2 of "Brutus" 14th essay (from the March 6,...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 81: Brutus

The Power of the Judiciary. (Part 3) Brutus, February 7th, 14th & 28th, 1788 Part 1: from the 12th essay by "Brutus" from the February...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 80: Brutus

The Power of the Judiciary. (Part 2) Brutus, January 31, 1788 From the 11th essay of "Brutus" taken from The New-York Journal, January 31, 1788. The nature...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 78-79: Brutus

The Power of the Judiciary Brutus, March 20 & April 10, 1788 Part one is taken from the first part of the "Brutus's" 15th essay of...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 76-77: Richard Henry Lee

An Antifederalist View of the Appointing Power under the Constitution Richard Henry Lee . . . . In contemplating the necessary officers of the union, there...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 75: Hampden

A Note Protesting the Treaty-making Provisions of the Constitution Hampden, February 16, 1788 The following essay was penned anonymously by "Hampden," and it appeared in The...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 74: Philadelphiensis

The President as Military King Philadelphiensis, February 6 & 20, and April 9 of 1788 "Philadelphiensis," who was influenced by Thomas Paine (in Common Sense), wrote...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 73: William Penn

Does the Presidential Veto Power Infringe on the Separation of Departments? William Penn, January 3, 1788 "William Penn," an anonymous writer appeared in the Independent...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 72: Republicus

On The Electoral College; on Re-eligibility of the President Republicus, March 1, 1788 By an anonymous writer "Republicus," appearing in The Kentucky Gazette on March 1,...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 71: Agrippa, and A Customer

The Presidential Term of Office Agrippa, February 5, 1788; A Customer, March 13, 1788 Part 1: Luther Martin, The Genuine Information. Part 2: An excerpt from...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 70: An Old Whig

The Powers and Dangerous Potentials of His Elected Majesty An Old Whig, December 11, 1787 "An Old Whig's" essay from The New-York Journal of December 11,...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 69: Richard Henry Lee

The Character of the Executive Office By Richard Henry Lee. The great object is, in a republican government, to guard effectually against perpetuating any portion of...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 68: William Grayson

On the Mode of Electing the President William Grayson, June 18, 1788 From a speech by William Grayson given to the Virginia ratifying convention on June...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 67: Cato

Various Fears Concerning the Executive Department Cato, November 8, 1787 From the "Cato" letters of George Clinton, taken from The New-York Journal of November 8, 1787. I...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 66: North Carolina

On The Power of Impeachment North Carolina From North Carolina Mr. JOSEPH TAYLOR objected to the provision made for impeaching. He urged that there could be no...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 65: Gilbert Livingston and John Lansing

On the Organization and Powers of the Senate. (Part 4) Gilbert Livingston and John Lansing, June 24, 1788 (By Gilbert Livingston and John Lansing delivered on...

The Anti-Federalist Papers 64: Cincinnatus

On the Organization and Powers of the Senate. (Part 3) Cincinnatus, Nov. 22, 1787 Taken from the New York Journal, Nov. 22, 1787 by "Cincinnatus" It...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 63: The Federal Farmer

On the Organization and Powers of the Senate. (Part 2) . . . . The senate is an assembly of 26 members, two from each...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 62: Brutus

On the Organization and Powers of the Senate. (Part 1) Brutus, April 10, 1788 Taken from the 16th essay of "Brutus" from The New York Journal...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 61: The Federal Farmer

Questions and Comments on the Constitutional Provisions Regarding the Election of Congressmen The Federal Farmer The "Federal Farmer" comments on the election of Congressmen. . . ....

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 60: John F. Mercer

Will the Constitution Promote the Interests of Favorite Classes? John F. Mercer, 1788 John F. Mercer of Maryland was the author of this essay, taken from...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 59: Vox Populi

The Danger of Congressional Control of Elections Vox Populi, October 30, 1787 Alexander Hamilton, in Federalist #59, addresses this same topic from an opposing viewpoint. This...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 58: The Federal Farmer

Will the House of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part 4) The Federal Farmer It is said that our people have a high sense of freedom, possess...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 57: The Federal Farmer

Will the House of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part 3) The Federal Farmer . . . . But "the people must elect good men." Examine the...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 56: The Federal Farmer

Will the House of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part 2) The Federal Farmer . . . . Why in England have the revolutions always ended in...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 55: The Federal Farmer

Will the House of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part 1) The Federal Farmer Following are four essays by "The Federal Farmer." .... It being impracticable for the...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 54

Apportionment And Slavery: Northern And Southern Views This four part essay shows both northern and southern dissatisfaction with "the Great Compromise." The first is taken...