And a little-known story of Randolph’s land for freed slaves
American Minute with Bill Federer
On SEPTEMBER 13, 1814, just weeks after they burned the U.S. Capitol, British forces attacked Baltimore, Maryland — the third largest city in America.
Britain had the largest global empire in world history, controlling 13 million square miles — almost a quarter of the Earth’s land — and nearly half billion people — one-fifth of the world’s population at that time.
Out of nearly 200 countries in the world, only 22 were never controlled or invaded by Britain.
As the War of 1812 progressed, British soldiers marched toward Baltimore.
On their way, they captured an elderly physician of Upper Marlboro, Dr. William Beanes.
The town feared Dr. Beanes would be hanged so they asked attorney Francis Scott Key to sail with Colonel John Skinner under a flag of truce to the British flagship Tonnant in order to arrange a prisoner exchange.
Concerned their plans of attacking Baltimore would be discovered, the British placed Francis Scott Key and Colonel Skinner under armed guard aboard the H.M.S. Surprise.
They were transferred to a sloop where they watched 19 British ships fire continuously for 25 hours over 1,800 cannon balls, rockets and mortar shells at the earthen Fort McHenry.
Fort McHenry was named for Secretary of War James McHenry, who had signed the Declaration of Independence.
His son, John McHenry, fought in the battle.
President James Madison, known as the “Chief Architect of the Constitution,” had declared a National Day of Prayer, July 9, 1812, stating:
”I do therefore recommend … rendering the Sovereign of the Universe … public homage … acknowledging the transgressions which might justly provoke His divine displeasure … seeking His merciful forgiveness … and with a reverence for the unerring precept of our holy religion, to do to others as they would require that others should do to them.”
On July 23, 1813, Madison issued another Day of Prayer, referring to: “religion, that gift of Heaven for the good of man.”
During the Battle of Fort McHenry, the citizens of Baltimore extinguished every light in every window so that the British would not be able to use them to get their aim.
A thunderstorm providentially blew in and rained so hard the ground was softened, allowing most of the cannon balls to sink in the mud.
With the darkness broken by lightning and the new exploding cannon balls, Francis Scott Key saw the dramatic scene of “bombs bursting in air.”
On the morning of September 14, 1814, “through the dawn’s early light,” Key saw the flag still flying.
The first verse is well-known, but the fourth verse had an even more enduring affect, as it contained a phrase which became the United States’ National Motto:
O thus be it ever when free men shall stand,
Between their loved home and the war’s desolation;
Blest with victory and peace, may the Heaven-rescued land,
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation!
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just;
And this be our motto ‘IN GOD IS OUR TRUST’!
And the Star Spangled Banner in triumph shall wave,
Over the land of the free and the home of the brave!
Americans honor the flag, as it is the symbol of the “republic for which it stands.”
A “republic” is where THE PEOPLE are KING, ruling through their representatives — their public servants.
Instead of a king or government dictating to us, pledging allegiance to the flag is basically pledging allegiance to us being in charge of ourselves.
When someone dishonors the flag, what they are saying is they no longer want to be king, they are protesting this system where people rule themselves.
Francis Scott Key’s song, “The Defense of Ft. McHenry,” was printed shortly after the Battle of Fort McHenry in the Analectic Magazine (Vol. 4, 1814).
The song’s name was later changed to “The Star-Spangled Banner” and it became the United States National Anthem.
Francis Scott Key had actually reworked a previous song he had written nine years earlier to celebrate the American victory over the Muslim Barbary pirates titled “When the Warrior Returns from Battle Afar,” 1805:
In the conflict resistless, each toil they endured,
Till their foes shrunk dismay’d from the war’s desolation,
And pale beam’d the Crescent, its splendour obscured
By the light of the Star-Spangled flag of our nation.
Where, each radiant star gleam’d a meteor of war,
And the turban’d heads bow’d to the terrible glare;
Then mix’d with the olive the laurel did wave,
And form’d a bright wreath for the brows of the brave.
Muslim pirates had enslaved an estimated 180 million Africans and over a million Europeans.
Virtually every African slave brought to America had been purchased from Muslim slave markets.
In a twist of irony, those intent on removing symbols and reminders of past groups which participated in enslaving Africans must, to be consistent, also remove Islamic symbols, as Muslim slaves markets sold Africans.
After the Battle of Fort McHenry, President James Madison proclaimed, November 16, 1814:
”The National Legislature having by a Joint Resolution expressed their desire that in the present time of public calamity and war a day may be recommended to be observed by the people of the United States as a day of public humiliation and fasting and of prayer to Almighty God for the safety and welfare of these States, His blessing on their arms, and a speedy restoration of peace …
I … recommend … offering … humble adoration to the Great Sovereign of the Universe, of confessing their sins and transgressions, and of strengthening their vows of repentance …that He would be graciously pleased to pardon all their offenses against Him … that He would in a special manner preside over the nation … giving success to its arms.”
Remembering American history is necessary to counteract the socialist/communist tactic of deconstruction, which is:
- say negative things about a country’s founders so people emotionally detach from them;
- then move the people into a neutral position where they no longer remember where they came from;
- – then brainwashed then into the socialist/communist future planned for them.
Francis Scott Key fought slavery!
In 1820, a U.S. revenue cutter captured the slave ship Antelope off the coast of Florida with nearly 300 African slaves.
Francis Scott Key was defense attorney for the Africans, many of whom were just young teenagers.
Spending his own money, Key fought to free the slaves in an expensive legal battle which dragged on for seven years.
Arguing their case before the Supreme Court in 1825, Francis Scott Key, as recorded by Henry S. Foote:
“… greatly surpassed the expectations of his most admiring friends … Key closed with … an electrifying picture of the horrors connected with the African slave trade.”
Jonathan M. Bryant wrote in Dark Places of the Earth: The Voyage of the Slave Ship Antelope (2015):
“Most startling of all, Key argued … that all men were created equal … If the United States had captured a ship full of white captives, Key asked, would not our courts assume them to be free? How could it be any different simply because the captives were black? … Slavery was a dangerously hot subject, but Francis Scott Key stepped deliberately into the fire.”
”Key had unleashed all of his rhetorical weapons … This was a case he believed in and had worked personally to bring before the Supreme Court. The Antelope was a Spanish slave ship that had been captured by privateers and then seized by a United States Revenue Marine cutter off the coast of Florida …”
Jonathan M. Bryant continued:
”Using clear precedent, poetic language, and appeals to morality, Francis Scott Key argued that the hundreds of African captives found aboard the Antelope should be returned to Africa and freedom. United States law demanded it, he said. The law of nations demanded it, he said. Even the law of nature demanded it.
Key looked into the eyes of the six justices sitting for the case, four of whom were slave owners, and announced that ‘by the law of nature, all men are free.'”
Considered to be one of its many shameful decisions, the Supreme Court sadly chose to define slaves as property.
Only a portion of the slaves were returned to Africa where they founded the colony of New Georgia in Liberia.
Key raised $11,000 to help the Africans.
In 1841, two years before his death, Francis Scott Key helped former President John Quincy Adams free 53 African slaves in the Amistad case.
Francis Scott Key became a board member of the American Sunday School Union and the American Bible Society.
He told the Washington Society of Alexandria, March 22, 1814:
“The patriot who feels himself in the service of God, who acknowledges Him in all his ways, has the promise of Almighty direction, and will find His Word in his greatest darkness, ‘a lantern to his feet and a lamp unto his paths’ …
He will therefore seek to establish for his country in the eyes of the world, such a character as shall make her not unworthy of the name of a Christian nation.”
Francis Scott Key wrote a detailed account of the Battle of Fort McHenry to Thomas Jefferson’s cousin, John Randolph, October 5, 1814.
John Randolph was a U.S. Congressman from Virginia who went on to become a U.S. Senator, 1825-1828.
President Andrew Jackson appointed John Randolph as U.S. Minister to Russia, 1830.
Francis Scott Key shared his faith with John Randolph:
“May I always hear that you are following the guidance of that blessed Spirit that will ‘lead you into all truth,’ leaning on that Almighty arm that has been extended to deliver you, trusting only in the only Savior, and ‘going on’ in your way to Him ‘rejoicing.'”
Rep. John Randolph wrote to Francis Scott Key, September 7, 1818 (Hugh A. Garland, The Life of John Randolph of Roanoke, New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1853, Vol. II, p. 99):
“I am at last reconciled to my God and have assurance of His pardon through faith in Christ, against which the very gates of hell cannot prevail. Fear hath been driven out by perfect love.”
In 1817, John Randolph was one of the founders of the “The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America” which helped found the country of Liberia, West Africa, in 1821-22.
John Randolph wrote to Francis Scott Key, May 3, 1819, (Hugh A. Garland, The Life of John Randolph of Roanoke, New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1853, Vol. II, p. 106):
“I still cling to the cross of my Redeemer, and with God’s aid firmly resolve to lead a life less unworthy of one who calls himself the humble follower of Jesus Christ.”
Rep. John Randolph made Francis Scott Key the executor of his Will.
In his Will of 1819, John Randolph arranged for all his slaves to be freed after his death, writing:
“I give and bequeath to all my slaves their freedom, heartily regretting that I have ever been the owner of one.”
In his Will of 1822, John Randolph also provided money for transportation, supplies and the purchase of land for his freed slaves to settle in the free State of Ohio.
Each slave above the age of 40 was to receive 10 acres of land.
Randolph’s Will was challenged in court but after a lengthy battle it was upheld.
The 383 former “Randolph Slaves” arrived in Cincinnati in 1846.
They overcame many difficulties and local prejudices, and eventually settled Rossville, Ohio, near the town of Piqua.
In Rossville and Piqua, they established Cyrene African Methodist Episcopal Church in 1853, Second Baptist Church in 1857, an African Baptist Church in 1869, and a Jackson African Cemetery in 1866.
In their Jackson African Cemetery, founded in 1866, one of the gravestones has engraved on it:
“Born A Slave — Died Free.”
From this settlement came some of the first African Americans to serve in the U.S. military during the Civil War.
Rep. John Randolph wrote to John Brockenbrough, August 25, 1818 (Collected Letters of John Randolph of Roanoke to Dr. John Brockenbrough, Kenneth Shorey, editor, New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1988, p. 17):
“I have thrown myself, reeking with sin, on the mercy of God, through Jesus Christ His blessed Son and our (yes, my friend, our) precious Redeemer; and I have assurances as strong as that I now owe nothing to your rank that the debt is paid and now I love God – and with reason.
I once hated him – and with reason, too, for I knew not Christ. The only cause why I should love God is His goodness and mercy to me through Christ.”
Self-Educated American Contributing Editor, William J. Federer, is the bestselling author of “Backfired: A Nation Born for Religious Tolerance no Longer Tolerates Religion,” and numerous other books. A frequent radio and television guest, his daily American Minute is broadcast nationally via radio, television, and Internet. Check out all of Bill’s books here.