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The Anti-Federalist Papers

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 80: Brutus

The Power of the Judiciary. (Part 2) Brutus, January 31, 1788 From the 11th essay of "Brutus" taken from The New-York Journal, January 31, 1788. The nature...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 78-79: Brutus

The Power of the Judiciary Brutus, March 20 & April 10, 1788 Part one is taken from the first part of the "Brutus's" 15th essay of...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 76-77: Richard Henry Lee

An Antifederalist View of the Appointing Power under the Constitution Richard Henry Lee . . . . In contemplating the necessary officers of the union, there...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 75: Hampden

A Note Protesting the Treaty-making Provisions of the Constitution Hampden, February 16, 1788 The following essay was penned anonymously by "Hampden," and it appeared in The...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 74: Philadelphiensis

The President as Military King Philadelphiensis, February 6 & 20, and April 9 of 1788 "Philadelphiensis," who was influenced by Thomas Paine (in Common Sense), wrote...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 73: William Penn

Does the Presidential Veto Power Infringe on the Separation of Departments? William Penn, January 3, 1788 "William Penn," an anonymous writer appeared in the Independent...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 72: Republicus

On The Electoral College; on Re-eligibility of the President Republicus, March 1, 1788 By an anonymous writer "Republicus," appearing in The Kentucky Gazette on March 1,...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 71: Agrippa, and A Customer

The Presidential Term of Office Agrippa, February 5, 1788; A Customer, March 13, 1788 Part 1: Luther Martin, The Genuine Information. Part 2: An excerpt from...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 70: An Old Whig

The Powers and Dangerous Potentials of His Elected Majesty An Old Whig, December 11, 1787 "An Old Whig's" essay from The New-York Journal of December 11,...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 69: Richard Henry Lee

The Character of the Executive Office By Richard Henry Lee. The great object is, in a republican government, to guard effectually against perpetuating any portion of...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 68: William Grayson

On the Mode of Electing the President William Grayson, June 18, 1788 From a speech by William Grayson given to the Virginia ratifying convention on June...

The Anti-Federalist Papers No. 67: Cato

Various Fears Concerning the Executive Department Cato, November 8, 1787 From the "Cato" letters of George Clinton, taken from The New-York Journal of November 8, 1787. I...